Janson & Janson   History of Art   Rev. 6th ed. (2004)

2016.7.6  更新2016.7.13

Chapter 28  Postmodernism  ポストモダニズム          p.942

Postmodernism  ポストモダニズム

●We began Part Four with a discussion of modernism.  私たちは、始めました第4部を、モダニズムの議論で。

It is appropriate that we end, for now, with its opposite: postmodernism.

We live in the "postmodern" era.  私たちは、生きています「ポストモダン」の時代に。

How can that be, if modern is what is happening today?  どうしてこんなことがありえるのでしょう、モダンが、現在起こっているものだとしたら。

The term itself suggests the peculiar nature of postmodernism, which seeks out incongruity.

To resolve this contradiction, we must understand modern in a dual sense: modernity and modernism.

Postmodernism is a trend that not only supersedes modernism; it is also opposed to the world order as it exists today and to the values that created it.

●What is postmodernism and when did it begin?  ポストモダニズムとは何で、いつ始まったのでしょうか。

Generally speaking, postmodernism is characterized by a total skepticism that rejects modernism as an ideal defining twentieth-century culture.

In challenging tradition, however, it deliberately refuses to provide a new meaning or impose a different order in its place.

Postmodernism represents a generation consciously not in search of its identity.

Hence it is not a unified movement at all, but a loose collection of tendencies that reflect a new sensibility.

Taken together, these pieces provide a jigsaw puzzle of our times.

Each country has a somewhat different outlook and vocabulary; nevertheless all may be considered forms of postmodernism.

We must therefore paint a broad picture, one that will provide us with a general idea of postmodernism's unique character.

Our treatment of Postmodernism art is likewise intended to be suggestive in discussing representative examples, while admittedly omitting much that is of interest.

The following discussion is intended to characterize the nature of the debate, which is often bitter.

●As the prefix post suggests, our world is in a state of transition - without telling us where we will land.

Although the term postmodern was coined by a historian in the late 1940s to denote a late stage of the civilization initiated by the Renaissance, it has been used mainly by literary critics since the mid-1960s, a significant fact in itself.

We may indeed trace the first postmodern symptoms back to that time.

However, in hindsight they appear to have been mostly a late phase of modernism, without making a decisive break from the mainstream of the twentieth century.

●What is the difference between modernism and postmodernism?  モダニズムとポストモダニズムの違いは何でしょうか。

Postmodernism springs from post-industrial society, which is passing rapidly into the Information Age (the so-called Third Wave).

According to postmodern theorists, the political, economic, and social structures that have governed the Western world since the end of World War II are either changing, undergoing attack from within, or breaking down altogether, ironically at the same time as the collapse of Communism in eastern Europe.

This institutional erosion has resulted in a corresponding spiritual crisis that reflects the chaos of people's lives.

●Postmodernism is a product of the disillusion and alienation afflicting the middle class.

At the same time, bourgeois culture has exhausted its possibilities by absorbing its old enemy, the avant-garde, whose mission was ended by its very success.

During the 1950s the media made the avant-garde so popular that the middle class accepted it and began to hunger for ceaseless change for its own sake.

By the following decade, modernism was reduced to a "capitalist" mode of expression by large corporations, which adopted it not just in architecture but in the painting and sculpture that decorate it.

●Postmodernism celebrates the death of modernism, which it regards as not only arrogant in its claim to universality but also as responsible for the evils of contemporary civilization.

Democracy, based on Enlightenment values, is seen as a force of oppression to spread the West's dominance around the world.

In common with most earlier avant-garde movements (including existentialism), postmodernism is antagonistic to humanism, which it dismisses as bourgeois.
多くの初期のアバンギャルドの運動 (実存主義を含む) と共通して、ポストモダニズムはヒューマニズム (人間主義) に対立します。ポストモダニズムは、ヒューマニズムをブルジョワジーとして退けます。

Reason, with its hierarchies of thought, is abandoned in order to liberate people from the established order.

This rejection opens the way for nontraditional approaches, especially those from the Third World, that emphasize emotion, intuition, fantasy, contemplation, mysticism, and even magic.

In this view, Western science is no better than any other system, since it has failed to solve today's problems.

And because scientific reality does not conform to human experience, it is irrelevant to daily life.

●Truth is rejected as neither possible nor desirable on the grounds that is used by its creators for their own power ends.

Subjective and conflicting interpretations are all that can be offered, and these may vary freely according to the context.

Since no set of values can have more validity than any other, everything becomes relative.

Deprived of traditional guidelines, the postmodernist drifts aimlessly in a sea without meaning or reality.

To the extent that the world makes any sense, it is at the local level, where the limited scale makes understanding possible in human terms.

●The only escape from an existence in which nothing has inherent worth is inaction, hedonism, or spirituality.

Spirituality is rarely an option, however, since religions impose their own authority and self-discipline.

For that reason, only the most extreme forms of mysticism, lacking all rational control, are acceptable.

Postmodern people are thus fated to become pleasure-seeking narcissists lacking any strong identity, purpose, or attachments.

Cynical and amoral, they live for the moment, without any concern for larger issues, which are imponderables in the first place.
ひねくれて非道徳的に、彼らはその時を生きます|より大きな問題 (まず第一に評価できないものたちです) には一切興味を示さずに。

Rather than vices, however, these traits are considered virtues.

They allow postmodernists a flexible approach to life that enables them to pursue new modes of existence, free from all restraints or authority.

●In the brave new world of postmodernism, the individual is no longer anchored in time or space.

Both have been made obsolete in life as they have been in science.

They are beyond normal human comprehension and are based on assumptions subject to doubt.

Traditional definitions of time and space, moreover, were founded on hierarchies of thought that served the purposes of colonialism.

However, the new "hyper-space" created by global communication makes it impossible to position oneself within customary boundaries.

●Just as time and space have lost all meaning, so has history. 時間と空間が全ての意味を失ったように、歴史も意味を失いました。

The view of history as progressive was also tied to the established power centers of the capitalists system and used as a tool to oppress the Third World.

Furthermore, its basic assumptions is wrong.  さらに、その基本の仮定が間違っています。

If linear logic is inherently invalid, there can be no linear history either. もし線形論理が本来妥当でなければ、線形な歴史もありえません。

Since conventional knowledge and structures are questionable, nothing can be learned from history in the first place, and its "facts" are therefore of little interest.

●Postmodernism makes no attempt to provide new answers to replace the old certitudes it destroys.

It instead substitutes pluralism in the name of multicultural diversity.

Pluralism leads inevitably to eclecticism in the arts, with which it is virtually interchangeable, since no one aesthetic is better than any other.

Not only are the two functions of each other, they become ends in themselves.

●By the same token, postmodernism does not try to make the world a better place.

In its resolute antimodernism, it is socially and politically ambivalent at best, self-contradictory at worst.

Its operating principle is anarchism.  その作動原理はアナキズムです。

But although it is extremely liberal in its outlook - witness the rise of "political correctness" in the United States and Europe - to classical Marxists it is simply a decadent late phase of capitalism, while to conservatives it goes against traditional values.
しかし、ポストモダニズムは、その外観が、極めてリベラルであるにもかかわらず (米国や欧州では「政治的公正」の運動の立ち上がりを目撃します) 、古典的なマルクス主義者らとっては、単に資本主義の退廃的な後期であります。しかるに、保守主義者にとっては、伝統的な価値に反抗します。

To the extent that it does offer an alternative, postmodernism embraces any new doctrine as superior to the one it seeks to displace.

A large number of postmodernists can nevertheless be described as neo-Marxists, despite the fall of nearly all Communist regimes around the world.

Radical politics is, in reality, a game played for its own sake.  急進的な政策は、現実において、それ自身のために行われるゲームです。

In the end, postmodernism remains essentially a form of cultural activism motivated by intellectual theory, not political causes.

It is ill-suited to political action, because it lacks both a coherent agenda and practical plan.

●Postmodernism has all the classic earmarks of an avant-garde, despite the fact that it vigorously - and disingenuously - denies such a connection.
 ポストモダニズムは、アバンギャルドの古典的な目印をすべて持っています。ポストモダニズムが、かかるつながりを、熱心に、(そして不誠実に) 否定しているという事実にもかかわらず。

Its determined opposition to modernity makes it the latest foe of conventional authority, which it is dedicated to overthrowing.

Like all avant-gardes, postmodernism is attacked as a "degenerate" movement that fosters an atmosphere of crisis in order to sustain and justify itself.

In character it comes closest to Dada and Surrealism, but it lacks their high-pitched hysteria.

Its anti-elitism is simply another means of attacking the cultural establishment, which it wishes to replace.

The relativism and anarchism of postmodernism are openly subversive.    .ポストモダニズムの相対主義や無政府主義は、オープンに破壊的です。

Its nihilism reflects the prevailing skepticism of the late twentieth century, when very little was considered to have any significance or worth

●Postmodernism might well take its credo from Edgar Allan Poe:  ポストモダニズムはその信条をポーからとったのではないか。

  All that we see or seen       我々が見、そして見たものはすべて

  Is but a dream within a dream  夢の中の夢にすぎない

Such a position has its problems.  このような立ち位置(見方)には、問題があります。

A sharp blow to the solar plexus immediately gives lie to the belief of a dualism between the mind and the body.

As we examine it, we realize that the postmodernist rejection of reality is a philosophical assumption, just as its rejection of truth is a value judgment.

Even if we grant that everything is ultimately unknowable, reality must nonetheless be capable of being understood in a functional sense; otherwise people could not survive.
たとえ、すべてのものが究極的に不可知であると認めても、現実は、それにも係らず、実用的な意味で理解されることが可能です; さもないと人々は生きていけません。

Postmodernism, then, is comparable to that higher understanding sought by mystics, for whom reason is insufficient.

●Because it has so many meanings, postmodernism itself becomes a meaningless term, posing the kind of hopeless double-bind that it delights in.

In fact, postmodernism as a whole is riddled with contradictions. 実際、ポストモダニズムは、全体として、矛盾に満ちています。

But if nothing is valid, then the values it often espouses - feminism, pluralism, and the like - must be false as well.
しかし、もし一切が妥当でないと、ポストモダニズムが信奉する諸価値 −フミニズム、多元主義、など− もまた虚偽でなければなりません。

Seen in this light, postmodernism is a sterile philosophy that reflects the impotence of intellectuals to act.

●In the end, however, postmodernism cannot escape the very laws of history it claims to deny.

As a parody of modernity, it has its parallels - indeed, its origins - in the avant-garde of a hundred years ago.
モダニティーのパロディとして、モダニズムは、持ちます。その類似形 (実際は起源) を。100年前のアバンギャルドに。

The same "decadence" and nihilism can be found toward the end of the nineteenth century in the Symbolist movement, with its apocalyptic vision of despair.

Like pluralism, for example, Gauguin's quest for the spiritual assumed the superiority of "alternative" knowledge systems and asserted a belief in magic, which was widely shared by other Symbolism.

Postmodernists espouse the same destructive values as the nineteenth-century German philosopher Friedrich Nietzche, who was one of the principal sources of the avant-garde.

Although postmodernism offers nothing in exchange, people will undoubtedly devise a new system to replace the old one that it strives to overturn.

Semiotics and Deconstruction    記号学と脱構築    p.943

●The Information Age is obsessed with meaning and with the lack of it.

Like the intellectual disciplines, nearly all branches of culture have come under the spell of semiotics - the study of signs - also known as semiology (though a distinction is sometimes made between the two).
知的な諸学問と同様に、文化の殆どすべての分野は、記号学 -記号の学問- の呪文の下にあります。セミオロジーとしても知られていますが、両者を区別することもあります。

Semiotics is part of philosophy, linguistics, science, sociology, anthropology, communications, psychology, art, literature, cinema: any area of human activity that involves symbols.

(There are other classes of signs that are the subject of semiotic inquiry as well.)

Semiotics in turn has been undermined from within by deconstruction, which is undoubtedly the most powerful attack mounted to date by postmodernism.

As the term suggests, deconstruction is destructive, not constructive. 用語が示唆するように、脱構築は、破壊的です。建設的ではありません。

It tears a text apart by using the text against itself, until the text finally "deconstructs" itself.

For those interested in exploring the issues further, we have supplied a brief overview in the Postscript at the end of this chapter.

For our purposes it is not the theories that count, no matter how interesting they may be, but their effect on art.

Postmodern Art    ポストモダンの芸術

●We are, in a sense, the new Victorians.  私たちは、ある意味で、新しいビクトリア時代人です。

More than a century ago, Impressionism underwent a similar crisis, from which Post-Impressionism emerged as the direction for the next 20 years.

Behind its complex rhetoric, postmodernism can be seen as a strategy for sorting through the past while making a decisive break with it that will allow new possibilities to emerge.

Having received a rich heritage, artists are faced with a wide variety of alternatives.

The principal feature of the new art is eclecticism.  主要な特徴|新しいアートの|は、あります|折衷主義で。

Another indication of the state of flux is the reemergence of many traditional European and regional American art centers.

●Art since 1980 has been called Postmodern, but not all of it fits under this umbrella.

We shall find that the participation of the visual arts in the postmodern adventure has varied greatly and taken some surprising turns.

The traditional mediums of painting and sculpture have played a secondary role.

They are closely identified with the modernist tradition and are therefore rejected as tools of the ruling class.

Meanwhile, nontraditional forms, such as installations, performance and photography, have come to the forefront and have become highly politicized in the process.

●Much of the basis for Postmodern art can be traced back to Conceptualism, which led the initial attack on modernism (see page 893).

Indeed, it has been argued that the beginnings of Postmodernism can be dated to the rise of Conceptualism in the mid-1960s.

The two, however, are products of two distinctly different generations.  この二つは、しかし、二つのはっきり異なる世代の産物です。

Furthermore, Conceptualism was itself derived from Dada, which has provided an "antimodern" alternative since early in the twentieth century.

In the context of the 1960s, it was simply part of that ongoing dialogue, in which Pop Art also participated.

That date, moreover, seems too early for the onset of what is fundamentally a late-twentieth-century phenomenon.

●Installation and performance art have been around since the 1960s as well.

What has changed is the content of these art forms as part of a larger shift in viewpoint.

Focused as it was on matters of art, early Conceptualism seems almost innocent in hindsight.

Postmodernists, in contrast, attack modern art as part of a larger offensive against contemporary society.

They are far more issue-oriented than their predecessors, and their work cuts across a much wider range of concerns than ever before.

●The principal manifestation of Postmodernism is appropriation, which looks back self-consciously to earlier art.

It does so both by imitating previous styles and by taking over specific motifs or even entire images.

Artists, of course, have always borrowed from tradition, but rarely so systematically as now.

Such plundering is nearly always a sign of deepening cultural crisis, suggesting bankruptcy.

(The same thing has been going on for some time in popular culture, with its endless "retro" revivals.)

Since it is not tied to any system, Postmodernism is free to adopt earlier imagery and to alter its meaning radically by placing it in a new context.

The traditional importance assigned to the artist and object is furthermore de-emphasized in this approach, which stresses content and process over aesthetics.

The other chief characteristic of postmodernism is the merging of art forms.

Thus there is no longer a clear difference between painting, sculpture, and photography, and we maintain the distinctions mostly as a matter of convenience.

●Although it has an anti-intellectual side, Postmodernism is preoccupied with theory.

As a result, art (and, along with it, art history) has become theory-bound.  その結果、アート (およびアートのの歴史) は、理論に縛られたものになりました。

Despite a growing body of writing and criticism, however, it lags far behind literature and poetry in developing a postmodern approach.

Compared to language, the visual arts are traditionally poor vehicles for theory.

Perhaps they have become so word-oriented of late in an attempt to keep up with other disciplines.

●Postmodernism has a fatal flaw.  ポストモダニズムは、致命的な欠点を持っています。

It has produced little art that is memorable - it is merely "symptomatic" of our age.

But for that very reason it is worthy of our interest.  このことを別にすれば、それは私たちの興味に値するものです。

Fittingly enough, the most devastating critique of postmodernism comes from that apostle of modernism, Charles Baudelaire:

●Eclecticism has at all periods and places held itself superior to past doctrines, coming last on to the scene, it finds the remotest horizons already open to it; 

but this impartially only goes to prove the impotence of the eclectics. しかし、これは、公平に考えて、折衷主義の無能の証明に進むだけです。

People who are so lavish with their time for reflection are not complete men: they lack the element of passion.

No matter how clever he may be, an eclectic is but a feeble man; for he is a man without love.

Therefore he has no ideal...; neither star nor compass.  それ故、彼は究極の目標をもちません。星もコンパスも。

Doubt has led certain artists to beg the aid of all the other arts. 疑問は、ある芸術家たちに、他のすべてのアートの助けを請わせました。

Experiment with contradictory means, the encroachment of one art upon another, the importation of poetry, wit, and sentiment into painting - all these modern miseries are vices peculiar to the eclectics.




●私たちは、ある意味で、新しいビクトリア時代人です。 一世紀以上も前に、印象主義は同様な危機を経験しました。 その危機から、ポスト印象主義が、次の20年間の方向として、生まれました。

その複雑なレトリックの裏に、ポストモダニズムは、過去と決定的に断絶しながら、過去をより分ける戦略であると見なすことが出来ます。 そのことは新しい可能性が生まれることを許します。

豊かな遺産を受け継ぎながら、芸術家たちは、多種多様な代替案に直面します。 新しいアートの主要な特徴は、折衷主義です。 流動的な状態のもう一つの指標は、多くの伝統的なヨーロッパや地域アメリカのアートセンターの再出現です。

●1980年以降のアートは、ポストモダンと呼ばれています、しかしその全てがこの傘の下に適合するのではありません。 私たちは、ポストモダンの冒険における視覚アートの参入が、非常に変化し、いくつかの驚くべき交代劇を演じたことを見出すでしょう。 

伝統的な媒体である絵画や彫刻は、二次的な役割を演じました。 それらは、モダニストの伝統に密接に同一視されています、そして、支配階級の道具としては拒絶されました。 


●ポストモダン芸術の基礎の多くは、コンセプト主義に遡ることができます。コンセプト主義はモダニズムに最初の攻撃をしかけました(893頁参照)。 実際、ポストモダニズムの開始は、1960年代中期のコンセプト主義の立ち上がりの時期であると議論されてきました。 

この二つは、しかし、二つのはっきり異なる世代の産物です。 さらに、コンセプト主義は、ダダから由来しました。ダダは、20世紀の初頭以来、「反モダン」の代替策を与えたのです。 1960年代の文脈において、それは現在進行中の対話の一部にすぎません。

この対話にはポップアートも参加しています。 この日付(1960年代)は、さらに言えば、根本的になにか20世紀後期の現象であるものの開始時期としては、かなり早すぎます。

●インストレーションやパフォーマンス・アートは、1960年代以来同様に、ずっと存在してきました。 何が変化したかというと、視点がより大きくシフトしたことの一環としての、これらの芸術形式の中身です。 


逆に、ポストモダニストは、モダンアートを、現代社会に対するより大規模攻撃の一部として、攻撃します。 彼らは、先人たちよりもずっと論点志向であり、彼らの作品は、かってないほど広い範囲の関心を超えて影響を及ぼしました。

●ポストモダニズムの主要な声明は、アプロプリエーション(流用)です。それは、自意識的に初期の芸術を振り返ります。 以前のスタイルを真似たり、モチーフや全体のイメージを引き継いだりすることによって、それはそうします。 

芸術家は、もちろん、伝統から、常に借りますが、しかしめったに現在のようにそんなにシステマチックにはやりません。 このように略奪することは、殆ど常に、文化的危機が深まることの兆候です。 それは破産を示唆します。


ポストモダニズムは、どんなシステムにも縛られていないので、自由に、以前のイメージを採用します。そしてその意味を、それを新しい文脈に置くことによって、過激に変更します。 芸術家とモノに与えられた伝統的な重要性は、この方法においては、さらに重きが置かれなくなります。

この方法は、内容な過程を美的感覚よりも優先します。 ポストモダニズムの、もう一つの主たる特性は、芸術の形式の融合です。 もはや絵画と彫刻と写真の間に、明確な違いはありません。そして、私たちはその区別を、大抵は便宜のために、維持します。

●ポストモダニズムは、非知的側面を持ちますが、理論にも専念しています。 その結果、アート (およびアートのの歴史) は、理論に縛られたものになりました。 書き物や批評の総体がどんどん増えるにもかかわらず、ポストモダニズムは、その手法を開発することにおいて、文学や詩に遅れをとります。

言語と比較して、ビジュアル・アートは、伝統的に理論の乗り物としては劣っています。 多分、それらは、最近、他の分野に遅れずについていこうと試みて、言葉志向になったからです。

●ポストモダニズムは、致命的な欠点を持っています。 それは、記憶に残りうる作品を殆ど生産しませんでした。 それは、単に私たちの時代の「兆候」になつたのです。 このことを別にすれば、それは私たちの興味に値するものです。 


折衷主義は、いつどこにおいても、過去のドクトリンよりも自らを上位においてきました。 そのシーンに最後にやってくることによって。 それは、それのためにすでに開かれた最も遠隔の地平をみつけるのです。 しかし、これは、公平に考えて、折衷主義の無能の証明に進むだけです。 

熟考する時間を惜しまない人たちというのは、完全な人ではありません。 彼らは、情熱の要素を欠きます。 彼が如何に賢明であろうとも、折衷主義者は、か弱い人にすぎません。 彼は愛のない人だからです。 それ故、彼は究極の目標をもちません。星もコンパスも。

疑問は、ある芸術家たちに、他のすべてのアートの助けを請わせました 矛盾する方法による実験、あるアートの他のアートへの侵犯、詩や機知や気持ちの絵画への輸入、これらの現代の悲惨のすべては、折衷主義に特有の悪徳なのです。


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